Mpox virus (previously known as Monkeypox or MPV) infection can cause an illness that includes rashes and other symptoms. While cases of mpox are usually rare in the United States, in 2022 the United States and many other countries experienced a large outbreak of mpox.
CDC Mpox Page
More information is available on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s mpox information page. Visit the CDC's Website
How it Spreads
Transmission of mpox requires close contact with someone who has mpox. Brief interactions that do not involve physical contact and health care interactions conducted using appropriate protective equipment are not high risk.
The mpox virus can be transmitted from person to person in the following ways:
- Direct contact with the skin or body fluids of an infected person (including sexual/intimate contact)
- Contact with virus-contaminated objects (such as bedding, clothing, fetish gear, or sex toys)
- Respiratory droplets during direct and prolonged face-to-face contact
- Spread to baby during pregnancy or spread to newborn during or after birth
People with a confirmed case of mpox are contagious starting four days before they develop symptoms and continue to be contagious until the scabs fall off the rash. A person with mpox should isolate from others until the scabs fall off.
Humans can also get mpox from contact with infected animals.
Mpox can cause a range of symptoms including fever, headache, or swollen lymph nodes, followed by a rash that can appear anywhere on the body. Some people may not have any symptoms before the start of the rash. Some people get a rash on the genitals or in the anal area. Some people start with having pain in the anal region, with or without other symptoms such as fever and headache.
For some people, the rash might only be on the genitals or anal region. For others, the rash might cover a larger area of the body. Over time, the rash will usually turn into raised bumps, which then fill with fluid. The rash eventually scabs over, and the scabs fall off.
Most people recover in 2-4 weeks, although the rash can leave scars. The disease can be serious, especially for immunocompromised people, children, and pregnant people.
To protect yourself and others from mpox, the Washington State Department of Health (DOH) recommends the following measures:
- Practicing safe sex and harm reduction methods such as reducing your number of sexual partners
- Avoiding sexual contact with anyone who has open wounds, sores, or rashes
- Avoiding other skin-to-skin contact with anyone who has open wounds, sores, or rashes, or anyone who is infected with mpox
- Avoiding close contact with an animal that might have mpox, especially when traveling to areas where mpox is endemic
- Avoiding touching objects, fabrics, and surfaces that have been used by someone with mpox and have not been disinfected
- Washing hands frequently
A two-dose vaccine, JYNNEOS, is available to reduce the chance of developing an mpox infection. Mpox vaccination is only recommended for people who are at increased risk of infection. For more information on who is at risk visit our Mpox Frequently Asked Questions page.
For the Public
- Mpox: What You Need to Know (PDF)
- Mpox Care Kit (PDF) | Spanish
- How to Take Care of Yourself When Diagnosed With Mpox (PDF) | Spanish
- Dealing With Rectal Mpox Symptoms (PDF) | Spanish
- Your Health mpox page (CDC)
- Recovering from mpox at home (World Health Organization)
- See upcoming Care-a-Van Events for the JYNNEOS vaccine
For Providers and Local Health Jurisdictions
Guidelines and Considerations
- Guidelines for JYNNEOS Vaccine Use (PDF)
- Interim Clinical Considerations for Use of JYNNEOS and ACAM2000 Vaccines during the 2022 U.S. Mpox Outbreak (CDC)
- Mpox Off-Site Vaccination Clinic Guidelines (PDF)
- Provider Checklist for Receipt of Mpox Vaccine (PDF)
Storage and Handling
- JYNNEOS Storage and Handling (PDF)
- JYNNEOS Prescribing Information (PDF) (Food and Drug Administration)
- Mpox Temperature Monitoring Log (PDF)
- Mpox Intradermal Vaccine Administration Webinar - YouTube
- Mpox Intradermal Vaccine Administration and Inventory Management Slides (PDF)
- Mpox Intradermal Vaccine Administration and Inventory Management Webinar Transcript (PDF)
- JYNNEOS Smallpox and Mpox Vaccine Subcutaneous Vaccine Preparation and Administration Summary: Standard Regimen (PDF) (CDC)
- JYNNEOS Smallpox and Mpox Vaccine Intradermal Vaccine Preparation and Administration Summary: Aleternative Dosing Regimen (PDF) (CDC)
- Vaccine Administration Errors and Deviations (CDC)
Vaccine Information Statement
- Smallpox/Mpox Vaccine Information Statement (CDC)
- Smallpox/Mpox Vaccine Information Statement - Spanish Declaración de información sobre la vacuna: Vacuna contra la viruela y la viruela símica o del mono (JYNNEOS™): Lo que debe saber (immunize.org) (PDF)
- Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) (Health and Human Services)